Wednesday, 21 September 2011

AECS LAB MANUAL-


AECS LAB MANUAL-


  1. RESUME
                The purpose of a resume is to disclose your accomplishments and qualifications to the admissions/interview committee. Think of your resume as a promotional brochure about you. You need to show the committee what you have accomplished and where your experience lies. Your strategy should be to emphasize the experience and skills that a particular school is looking for. Your resume is also an example of your communication and organizational skills.
How to get started:
The following outlines explains how can get started to write resume format.
First, take notes on your work experience - both paid and unpaid, full time and part  time. Write down your responsibilities, job title and company information. Include everything!
Take notes on your education. Include degree or certificates, major or course emphasis, school names and courses relevant to career objectives.
Take notes on other accomplishments. Include membership in organizations, military service and any other special accomplishments.
From the notes, choose which skills are transferable (skills that are similar) to the job you are applying for - these are the most important points for your resume.
Begin resume by writing your full name, address, telephone number, fax and email at the top of the resume.
Write an objective. The objective is a short sentence describing what type of work you hope to obtain.
Begin work experience with your most recent job. Include the company specifics and your responsibilities - focus on the skills you have identified as transferable.
Continue to list all of your work experience job by job progressing backwards in time. Remember to focus on skills that are transferable.

Summarize your education, including important facts (degree type, specific courses studied) that are applicable to the job you are applying for.
Include other relevant information such as languages spoken, computer programming knowledge etc. under the heading: Additional Skills
Finish with the phrase: REFERENCES Available upon request
Your entire resume should ideally not be any longer than one page. If you have had a number of years of experience specific to the job you are applying for, two pages are also acceptable.

Spacing: ADDRESS (center of page in bold) OBJECTIVE double space EXPERIENCE double space EDUCATION double space ADDITIONAL SKILLS double space REFERENCES. Left align everything except name/address.
Here are some headings included in the resume:
Identification data: name, address (or two addresses--present and permanent), and phone number(s) (including area code).

Objective: a single phrase expressing the specific type of employment you are seeking and/or the principal skills you want to use on the job. Some people prepare two or more resumes with different objectives. Once you formulate a clear objective, you can use it almost as a thesis for the remainder of your resume; only information that supports your career objective should be included on the resume.
Education:  Basic details about your education, including college location (city and state), degree, date of graduation (or expected graduation), major, related course work and (possibly) G.P.A. Most college students do not need to include information about secondary school, but it is important to summarize education attained through community colleges, other colleges (i.e., transfer credits), and specialized training programs.
Employment:  Brief summaries of principle employment to date. Start with your current (or most recent) position and work backward. Include all employment relevant to your career objective in any way. Internships and cooperative experience can be listed either under employment or under education.
Provide the name of the employer, the employer's location, your job title, dates of employment, and simple verb phrases to summarize your main activities on the job (see "action verb" list). When ever possible quantify and qualify data with specific details and statistics that illustrate your potential.
Activities/Honors/Special Skills: Additional areas that may be included on the resume if space allows. List all major activities and awards as well as any skills that are relevant to your career objective. These can show leadership, organization, critical thinking, teamwork, self management, initiative and influencing others.
Personal Data:  Such as height, weight, sex, and marital status should not be listed on the resume. Such factors are irrelevant and cannot legally be considered in employment decisions.
References: and, in some cases, portfolios or transcripts can be listed as "available upon request" if you have enough room at the bottom of the resume. Have references, phone numbers, and business addresses ready on a separate sheet whenever you go to an interview.
Selecting the right format:
There are several acceptable formats for a resume. Based on the amount of your work experience, you can use one of the following formats:
Chronological:  This is the most common resume style for people with significant work experience. In the Chronological format, the emphasis is placed on employment experience. The applicant's job history is presented in reverse chronological order, with the most recent jobs placed at the top of the list.
Functional:   In this non-linear format, your skills and achievements are emphasized. Your employment history is summarized and linked to your skills and achievements. Your skills and previous relevant experience (including educational experience) are presented at the beginning of your resume. The Functional resume can be particularly effective if you've held a number of similar positions; it will allow you to highlight your skills rather than itemize what might be a redundant looking job history.
Combination: The Combination resume is simply a Functional resume with a brief employment history added. Educational qualifications are listed first, skills and accomplishments are still listed next; the employment history follows. You need to reveal where you worked, when you worked, and what your job position was. Emphasize your talents and show how you used them at the job.

School Specific: Some schools specify the format for the resume.  In most cases, you will be asked to include all part-time and full time work experiences, research and project activities, extracurricular interests and community/civil activities.

Resume Writing Tips:
  • Keep it concise
  • Resumes should be one page, if possible, and two if absolutely necessary to describe relevant work experience.
  • Make your words count:
  • Your use of language is extremely important; you need to sell yourself to a committee quickly and efficiently.
  • Avoid large paragraphs (over six or seven lines).
  • Use action verbs such as "developed," "managed," and "designed" to emphasize your accomplishments.
  • Don't use declarative sentences like "I developed the..."or "I assisted in...";leave out "I."
  • Avoid passive constructions, such as "was responsible for managing." It's not only more efficient to say "Managed," it's stronger and more active.
  • Make the most of your experience: The admissions committee is looking for future business managers and leaders.  They need to know what you have accomplished to have an idea of what you can add to the program
  • Don't be vague: Describe things that can be measured objectively.  Telling someone that you "improved warehouse efficiency" doesn't say much. Telling them that you "cut requisition costs by 20%, saving the company $3800 for the fiscal year" does. Employers will feel more comfortable hiring you if they can verify your accomplishments.
  • Be honest: There is a difference between making the most of your experience and exaggerating or falsifying it.
  • Don't neglect appearance: Your resume is the first impression you'll   make on the committee, and a successful resume depends on more than what you say; how you say it counts as well
  •  Check your resume for proper grammar and correct spelling: It is                                   evidence of good communication skills and attention to detail. Nothing can ruin your chances of getting an admission more than submitting a resume filled with (easily preventable) mistakes.
  • Make your resume easy on the eyes: Use normal margins (1" on the top                and bottom, 1.25" on the sides) and don't cram your  text onto the page. Allow for some breathing room between the different sections. Avoid unusual or exotic font styles; use simple fonts with a professional look.
  • Eliminate superfluous details: Unnecessary details can take up a lot of valuable space on your résumé. Don’t mention personal characteristics such as age, height, and marital status on your resume.  This information is either irrelevant or is taken care of in other parts of the application.  List your hobbies and interests and extracurricular activities if these are not covered elsewhere.
  • Remember to keep all information on the resume concise and clear.
  • A one-page resume is best, although people with extensive experience or advanced degrees may have   to use two pages. Be scrupulously careful when you proofread; some employers will refuse to consider candidates who submit resumes with spelling or typographical errors.

Sample Resume

Chandra sekhar Sarikonda
H-num: 31-7-22
Gogineni vari street
Maruthinagar
Vijayawada-4

Career objective                  : To become a Lab- Programmer in a reputed
                                                   Engineering  College.
Educational Qualifications:

Degree
College Name
Year
Percentage
B-Tech
SRKIT
2010
68%
Inter
Sri Chaluvadi Ratnavathi Jr College
2005
84.3%
SSC
Sri Kakatiya High School
2003
77%

Hobbies                                        : Philately.
Achievements                            :  Paper presented in TECHLON 2010 in SRKIT.

Name                                             : Chandra sekhar Sarikonda
Father’s Name                           : Gandhi Raju
Gender                                                         : Male
Marital Status                             : single
Nationality                                   : Indian
Hobbies                                        : Philately
Languages Known                    : Telugu, English, and Hindi
Permanent Address                : H-no: 31-7-22
                                                                Gogineni vari street, Maruthinagar
                                                                Vijayawada -520004.
Ph-num                                         : 91- 9052802633
DOB                                                : 07-09-1990

Declaration                                

I hereby declare that the above information is true to the best of my knowledge.

                                                                                                                                    Signature
  1. Cover Letter
From
S.Chandra sekhar
S/o Gandhi Raju
D-num: 31-7-22
Gogineni Vari Street
Maruthinagar
Vijayawada-4.

To
Center Of Development Of Advanced Computing
Tiruvanatapuram
Kerala
India.
Sir,
                                Sub:   Recruitment of Programmers.
                                                                Your advertisement for the post of programmers in Hindu has caught my attention. I’m a fresher who finished B-Tech from JNTU and I had a good knowledge in various computer languages like C, C++, JAVA and posses good analytical skills. As I have worked in a team for my project in B-Tech. I have learnt to be a team player and honed my interpersonal skills. Working in a multi-cultural environment gave me an opportunity to develop excellent cross-cultural and communication skills. I’m also very effective in problem solving techniques as I’ve hands on experience as the president of my student community. If selected for the post. I would like to serve your esteemed Institution faithfully.
                                The details of my education & training are outlined in the enclosed Resume and I look forward to having an opportunity to be interviewed. You can reach me at sekhar.srkit08@gmail.com and +91 9052802633.

Yours sincerely
Chandra sekhar
Enclosure:  Resume.

TECHNICAL REPORT WRITING

INTRODUCTION
                The ability to write clear, concise reports are an asset to almost any professional the guide lines to report writing is given below.

FUNDAMENTALS
The main purpose of a technical report is to convey information. A secondary function is to stimulate and entertain. Giving information is of utmost importance in report writing. A good report needs careful planning. as part of the planning stage you should  try to answer the following questions. For technical reports required as part of assessments the following the following presentation guide lines are recommended.

Script
The report must be single sided on white all paper. Hand written and dot. Matrix reports are not acceptable.
Margins
All four margins must be at least 2.54cm
Page papers
Do not number the title, summary or contents pages. Number all other pages seductively starting at 1
Binding
A single staple in the top left corner or 3 staples spaced down the left hand margin. Longer reports (example, year 3 project) binders may be used.

The Standard Model:
It is the way that most professional scientists and engineers choose to write. The main features of a report that follows the ‘standard mode’ are as follows.
1.            The first major section is       an introduction, the last is a conclusion. The conclusion answers questions posed- explicitly or other wise- in the introduction.
2.            Factual material and measurement are kept completely separate from opinion and interpretation, often in different chapters or reactions.
3.            Formal, and rather impersonal, language is used.
4.            The repot usually refers quite extensively to the work of other   individuals.
5.            The sections of the report are numbered.

Most ‘standard model’ reports will contain some or all of the following sections, usually in this order. A standard report will probably also contain a table of contents, a list of abbreviations and technical terms, and perhaps an index if the document is long.
Abstract or summary: An abstract or summary (thy mean essentially the same thing) should contain a brief over view of the report, concluding its conclusions and recommendations if there are any. A good length for an abstract is 300 words. The heading ‘abstract ‘in a report is usually not numbered. Numbering usually starts with the introduction.
Introduction: The introduction sets out what the report is about, and what its role is in relation to other work in the field….  In Most technical reports, the introduction will say something about the content of the report, that is how the work it describes forms part of the over all body of work in that subject area. When describing an investigation set out to find.
Objectives (optional): This section, if present, states what the work being reported was expected to achieve, why it was undertaken and at where investigation.
Acknowledgement (optional): It is polite to give a brief note of thanks to those people or other bodies who have helped directly in the work the report describes.
Theory (optional): The theory section, if used, describes any back ground theory needed for the reader to understand the report. If usually found in reports that we mathematics.
Method (optional): In this method section you should describe the way the work carried out, what equipment you used, and any particular problems that had to be overcome. If the report is describing a survey, you should say how you choose you’re subjected how you checked for bias, and how you analyzed the results.
Results: In the standard model, results are usually given as plainly as possible, and without any comment ….they should be summarized. Tables and graphs can also be included.
Discussion: The conclusion gives the overall finding of the study. It is important to realize that ‘conclusion’ does not just mean the last bit of the report. a conclusion is not a summary.
Recommendations: In this section the author normally includes any advice he or she wishes the offer the reader. if the report is about making some sort of business decision the appropriate coarse of action will usually be recommended here. Some people use the recommendations sections for suggestions of further work.
References and Bibliography: The bibliography is the set of publications that authors referred to in a general sense in writing the reports or carrying out the work it describes these publications will not usually be cited explicitly in the text. References on the other hand are given in supports of some specific assertion and are always mentioned explicitly in the text.
Appendices: The appendices are where the author will usually place any material that is not directly relevant to the report, and will only be read by small number of people.

PRECAUTIONS WHILE WRITING A REPORT:

Numbering and Structure: It is common to number each section and sub- sections as well.
Language, Style, and Presentation: If your message is of profound importance, it will be communicated rapidly on the whole, how ever few scientific and technical reports contain ground. Breaking findings. In this case the author must pay more attention to issues of communication to encourage people to read the report.
Grammar and Spelling: If your grammar and spelling are not particularly good, it is vital that you have your work read by someone else before you decide that it’s finished. Get a printed copy of your document (not on a computer screen) and check it very thoroughly yourself.
Style: Most technical documents are written in a rather formal style.
Presentation: With modern computer software, it is relatively easy to prepare well- presented documents. The same type face should be having same spacing and all pictures should be centered on the page. It is better to print the document and have it checked by an impartial critical person.
Virtual material: Usually technical reports consists not only text but also graphs, photographs, or charts. Here are a few hints on including such material.
Label everything: All charts and graphs should have a caption and perhaps a number (figure: 1 :)

THINGS TO AVOID:
  • Avoid clichés and stock phrases.
  • Avoid giving too much data. It makes a different statement. Avoid poems and other non technical materials.
  • Avoid computer program listings and long mathematical proofs.
  • It is probably a bad idea to include statements about how different the work was, and how the report would have been better had the author had more time.

General guidelines:

  • Decide what you want to say, and then say it.
  • Before you write very much, cheek whether there are standards you are required to confirm to.
  • You don’t have to write the report in the same order you expect is to read.
  • A shorter report is a better report.
  • It is better to make other capable persons to read the report.
  • Make all important style and authorship decisions before you start having made their decisions, stick to them.
  • It’s usually better not to edit your document at all unit you have written the whole thing, at least to first - draft standard.
  • Writing good reports is difficult, and usually takes longer than the author anticipator.


3.   Attach your corrected reports here.

5.Vocabulary building: Synonyms

Word
synonyms
Abandon
Leave , for sake
Auxiliary
Subsidiary,  accessory
Adequate
Enough, sufficient
Assist
Help, support
Audacious
Brave, courageous
Abbreviate
Abridge, shorten
Adept
Skilled ,expert
Admire
Praise, esteem
Amaze
Surprise, astonish
Bold
Daring, violent
Candid
Frank, straight forward
Crazy
Insane, mad
Commence
Start, begin
Debase
Degrade, defame
Deliberate
Intentional, considered
Devoid
Vacant, empty
Distinguish
Differentiate, discern, vague , unclear, remove, discard
Deadly
Dangerous, fatal
Defer
Postpone, adjourn
Delicate
Soft, slender
Diminish
Decrease, reduce
Deviate
Divert, deflect,dublous
Endorse
Approve, back
Efficient
Effective, able
Eliminate
Remove
Evidence
Proof, testimony
Fabricate
Forge, construct
Flimsy
Trivial, ordinary
Forbid
Prohibit, disallow
Flexible
Changeable, variable
Fluctuate
Change, waver
Hamper
Block, disturb
Humorous
Amusing, laughable
Generous
Liberal, kind
Ignorant
Ill-informed, unaware, childish
Indicate
Show, hint
Initiate
Start, begin
Innate
Inherent, inborn
Intricate
Complex, difficult
Illegal
Unlawful, illicit
Immature
Improper, unfit, inappropriate
Infer
Conclude, deduce
Invent
Create, originate
Inhuman
Brutal, barbarous
Jovial
Merry, hearty
Majestic
Dignified, imposing
Opulent
Rich, wealthy

Antonyms
Word
synonyms
Accept
Reject
Abundant
Inadequate
Annihilate
Restore
Ability
Inability
Absurd
Sensible
Acquit
Charge
Brutal
Humane
Cheerful
Sluggish
Encourage
Discourage
Establish
Demolish
Flexible
Rigid
Partial
Impartial
Organize
Disorganize
Pleasant
Unpleasant
Remarkable
Ordinary
Scanty
Profuse
Absent
Present
Skilful
Inexpert
Arrogant
Humble
Abridge
Enlarge
Abundance
Shortage
Backward
Forward
Careful
Careless
Competent
Incompetent
Endanger
Defend
Feeble
Strong
Generous
Miserly
Cautious
Impulsive
Pacify
Provoke
Prolong
Decrease
Reverence
Scorn
Thoughtful
careless




6.   Group Discussions

‘Groups discussion is a systematic and purposeful interactive oral process’

In this form of group communication, a particular number of people (approximately three to eight) meet face to face and through oral interaction originate, share, and discuss ideas to arrive at a decision or solution to a problem. 

As in a football game, where you play like a team, passing the ball to each team member and aim for a common goal. Group discussion is also based on team work, incorporating views of different team members to reach a common goal.

Personality Traits Necessary For A Group Discussion
  1. Team player
  2. Reasoning ability
  3. Leadership
  4. Flexibility
  5. Assertiveness / aggressiveness
  6. Initiative
  7. Creativity/ thinking out of the box
  8. Inspiring ability
  9. Listening
  10. Awareness


Team player:
At the beginning of his carrier a manager works as a team member.  And , later as a team leader.  Managers always work in teams.  Management aspirations who lack team skills can’t be good managers.

Reasoning ability  
Reasoning ability plays an important role while expressing your opinions or ideas at a group discussion
for example: an opinion like ’Reduction in IIMs’ fees will affect quality’ can be better stated by demonstrating your reasoning ability and completing the missing links between fees and quality

Leadership: ‘leadership is action, not position’
The success of a team work depends, to a large extent, on its leader.  A group cannot carry on its assigned work effectively without a leader.  Though there is no appointed leader in a group discussion for selection,  a leader will emerge as the discussion proceeds.  The candidate who possesses both functional and coordinating ability will emerge as the leader. 
Flexibility:
You must be open to other ideas as well as to the evaluation of your ideas. That is what flexibility is all about.
Assertiveness / aggressiveness: You must be forth your point to the group in a very emphatic,  positive and confident manner.
Participants often confuse assertiveness with aggressiveness
Assertiveness is all abut forcing your point on the other person, and can be a threat to the group.  An aggressive person can also demonstrate negative body language, where as the assertive person displays positive body language.
Initiative:
 Initiator should ear mark his points at the beginning itself. But Initiator    should be careful because he takes the first few minutes of the discussion and so gains total attention of judges so if he performs well he can make a good impression but if he fumbles he will be a miserable failure.
Creativity: The Participant’s ideas should be original and supported by good examples.
Inspiring Ability
: A G.D. should incorporate the views of all Participants. All the participants should allow others to talk and express their views freely and clearly.
Listening: Maintain proper balance in expressing and imbibing ideas.
Awareness: The Participants should be clearly aware of the topic at macro and micro level. Awareness constitutes 40-50% of G.D. marks.
.
Phases of G.D.

  • Initiation /introduction
  • Body of the group discussion
  • Summarization/ conclusion

Initiation /introduction
Initiating a group discussion is a high profit-high loss strategy
When you initiate group discussion you not only grab the opportunity to speak, you also grab the attention of the examiner and your fellow candidates.

Body Of The Group Discussion
Speak on the topic fluently.

Summarization/ Conclusion
Most group discussions do not really have conclusions a conclusion is where the whole group decides in favor or against the topic. Summarization can be done in two methods.
1. The group can approve or disapprove the topic
2. Different views taken can be summarized in a nutshell. Avoid stating only your view or raising new points in a conclusion always conclude on time seamlessly.




Types Of Group Discussions

GDs can be topic-based or case-based.

Topic based Gds can be classified into three types:-

1. Factual Topics
2. Controversial Topics
3. Abstract Topics

Factual Topics:-

Factual topics are about practical things, which an ordinary person is aware of in his day-to-day life. Typically these are about socio-economic topics. These can be current, i.e. they may have been in the news lately, or could be unbound by time. A factual topic for discussion gives a candidate a chance to prove that he is aware of and sensitive to his environment.
E.g. The education policy of India,   Tourism in India, State of the aged in the nation.

Controversial Topics:-
Controversial topics are the ones that are argumentative in nature. They are meant to generate controversy. In GDs where these topics are given for discussion, the noise level is usually high, there may be tempers flying. The idea behind giving a topic like this is to see how much maturity the candidate is displaying by keeping his temper in check, by rationally and logically arguing his point of view without getting personal and emotional.
E.g. Reservations should be removed, Women make better managers

Abstract Topics:-
Abstract topics are about intangible things. These topics are not given often for discussion, but their possibility cannot be ruled out. These topics test your lateral thinking and creativity.
E.g. A is an alphabet, Twinkle twinkle little star, the number 10

Case-based Gd:-
Another variation is the use of a case instead of a topic.

The case study tries to simulate a real-life situation. Information about the situation will be given to you and you would be asked as a group to resolve the situation. In the case study there are no incorrect answers or perfect solutions. The objective in the case study is to get you to think about the situation from various angles.

IM A, IIM Indoor and IIT SOM Mumbai have a case-based discussion rather than topic-based discussion in their selection procedures.

GD TIPS
  1. Be as natural as possible. Do not try and be someone you are not. Be yourself.
  2. A group discussion is your chance to be more vocal. The evaluator wants to hear you speak.
  3. Take time to organize your thoughts. Think of what you are going to say.
  4. Don’t start speaking until you have clearly understood and analyzed the subject.
  5. Work out various strategies to help you make an entry: initiate the discussion or agree with someone else’s point and then move onto express your views.
  6. Opening the discussion is not the only way of gaining attention and recognition. If you do not give valuable insights during the discussion, all your efforts of initiating the discussion will be in vain.
  7. Your body language says a lot about you – your gestures and mannerisms are more likely to reflect your attitude than what you say.
  8. Be assertive not dominating; try to maintain a balanced tone in your discussion and analysis.
  9. Always be polite: Try to avoid using extreme phrases like: `I strongly object’ or `I disagree’. Instead try phrases like: `I would like to share my views on…’ or `One difference between your point and mine…’ or “I beg to differ with you”
  10. Apart from the above points, the panel will also judge team members for their alertness and presence of mind, problem-solving abilities, ability to work as a team without alienating certain members, and creativity.


  1. Vocabulary Building: Verbal Analogies


Methods to answer verbal analogy questions:
I.  Cause and effect relationship:
Poverty: illetracy   theft: imprisonment
II. Part and whole relationship:
Mouse: computer   Chapters: book
III. Part and Part relationship:
Hands: legs    leaves: roots
IV. Object and usage relationship
Bricks: building   wood: furniture
V. Tool and worker relationship:
Saw: carpenter   typewriter: typist
VI. Subject and study relationship:
Computer science: software   weather: metrology
VII. Worker and product relationship:
Author: book     welder: grill
VIII. Worker and workplace relationship:
Lawyer: bar  bell boy: hotel.
IX. Word and antonym relationship:
Exclude: include    blend: separate
X. word and synonym relationship:
Extract: remove    bright: shining
XI. Degree relationship:  
Drizzle: downpour    happy: ecstasy
XII. Sequence relationship:
Pregnancy: childbirth    trial: judgment
XIII. Product and raw material relationship:
Television: semi-conductor    cake: sugar
XIV. Gender relationship:
Duck: drake    goose: gander.
XV. Simile relationship:
Dog: faithful    bee: hard work
XVI. Creature and living place relationship:
Lion: den   rat: hole
XVII. Creature – offspring relationship:
Whale: calf   bird: chick
XVIII. Creature and sound relationship:
Goose: cackle   elephant: trumpet.
XIX. Grammatical relationship:
He: his   you: yours 
XX. Single and group relationship:
Lion: pride   Dog: pack
               
  1. Reading Comprehension

Reading comprehension is understanding a text that is read or the process of “constructing meaning” from a text .comprehension is a “ construction process” because it involves all of the elements of the reading process working together as a text is read to create a representation of the text in the readers mind.
                                               
                                                                Reading
Decoding
Comprehending
Text  Analysis
Response
Message is processed into information
Identifying central theme or idea
Conclusions drawn from information
Reaction to the message
Depends on socio cultural and economic factors

Explicit and implicit information


Purpose of Reading:-
                                                Reading is done for the following reasons.
  • To gain information.
  • To get a broad understanding.
  • To understand theories and principles.
  • To broaden one’s outlook.
  • To seek evidence.
  • An efficient reader can read fast, comprehend fully and can utilize the information for any purpose.
                                             Kinds of Reading

Entertainment
Awareness
Reference
Business
Academic
Gossip columns
Movie news
News articles , encyclopedia
Specific information for research and professional purpose
Reports, letters& documents
Exams
No concentration required
Brood and extensive concentration required
Focused and target reading
Concentration , involvement interaction
Critical thinking, vocabulary visual skills

                                                                               
Reading speed
Casual reading
Academic &professional
Very fast
Fast
Average
Slow
+400 wpm
300-400 wpm (words per minute)
200-300 wpm
Less than 200 wpm
+350 wpm
250-350 wpm
150-250 wpm
Less than 150 wpm+

An active reader has these qualities:
  • Pays attention to both control and style.
  • Tries to understand explicit and implicit meaning.
  • Predicts and responds to the content.
  • Differentiates between ideas opinions and feelings.
  • Infers the meaning of unfamiliar words from contents.
  • Understands the writer’s attitude.
  • Interprets graphic information and draws conclusion.
  • Extensive reading is for in- depth knowledge.

Reading Skills
                                                                            
       Vocabulary                Visual                          Rapid                           Intensive Reading
         Skills                      Perception                     reading          
       Prediction            Skimming          Scanning 
       Detailed               Critical             Inferential

Vocabulary
Recognizing the definition, Guessing the meaning of words
Sight recognition, recalling meanings, understanding Prefixes &Suffixes
Visual Perception
Accurate visual perception, Quick eye fixations
Faster Eye Fixations, No Vocalizations Word groups,
Prediction Techniques
Using index &chapter headings, scanning graphs and diagrams
Rapid glancing, recalling related information
Scanning
Locating specific information
Finding specific information,formulae,words&schedules
Skimming
Identifying a theme
Understand title, sub-headings, opening &last paragraphs
Intensive Reading
Critical Reading
Distinguish between useful- useless info,Explicit&implicit meanings and drawing inferences
                                                                                                                                                                                                                
               

Purpose of Reading Comprehension
Reading comprehension questions test your ability to understand a passage and answer question on the basis of what is stated and implied in the passage. You need to read the passage first so that you can identify the main idea of the passage and appreciate features such as the author's tone and attitude as well as the organization of the passage. Scroll back to the relevant point in the text as you do each question.

      You will find five types of reading comprehension questions to answer:

  • The main point of the passage
  • Information explicitly stated in the passage
  • Information or ideas implied or suggested by the author
  • Possible applications of the author's ideas to other situations, including the identification of situations or processes analogous to those described in the passage
  • The author's logic, reasoning, or persuasive techniques

TIPS


 Reading passages are drawn from many different disciplines and sources, so they may not be familiar. Do not be discouraged. Questions are to be answered on the basis of the information provided in the passage, and you are not expected to rely on outside knowledge of a particular topic.

  1. You should analyze each passage carefully before answering the accompanying questions. As with any kind of close and thoughtful reading, look for clues that will help you understand less explicit aspects of the passage. Try to separate main ideas from supporting ideas or evidence. Try also to separate the author's own ideas or attitudes from information he or she is presenting.
  2. Note transitions from one idea to the next, and examine the relationships among the different ideas or parts of the passage. For example, are they contrasting? Are they complementary? Consider the points the author makes, the conclusions drawn, and how and why those points are made or conclusions are drawn.
  3. Read each question carefully and be certain that you understand exactly what is being asked.
  4. Always read all the answer choices before selecting the best answer.
  5. The best answer is the one that most accurately and most completely answers the questions being posed. Be careful not to pick an answer choice simply because it is a true statement. Be careful also not to be misled by answer choices that are only partially true or only partially satisfy the problem posed in the question.
  6. Answer the questions on the basis of the information provided in the passage. Do not rely on outside knowledge. Your own views or opinions may sometimes conflict with the views expressed or the information provided in the passage. Be sure that you work within the context of the passage. You should not expect to agree with everything you encounter in reading passages.
          
  1. Functional English
Oral Communication Speech Pattern

I) Greeting

Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Hello!
Morning/Afternoon/Evening/
Good morning!
Hi (every body/ everyone/)
`Good to see you (again)!
How (very) nice to see you (again)!
Good after noon (sir/madam)! (from 12 noon to end of the day)
Hi there (everybody/ everyone/)
What a pleasant to see you!
Good evening gentlemen!
( 6pm onwards)
Long time no see!



II) Responses
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Hi!
Morning/after noon/evening
Good morning/after noon/evening (sir/madam)
Hello
Yes, long time no see



III) Asking After
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
How’s life (treating you)?
How are you?
I trust you are keeping well
What’s new the latest?
How are you keeping?
I hope all goes well with you
How are things?
Ah, Mr. Anand is you well?

How are things with you?
Are you better now?
( after someone has been ill)

How are you doing?
How will going?



IV)               Responses
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Ok, thanks
Fine, thanks
(I’m ) very well, thank you
So, thanks
I’m fine, thank you
And how are you?
(I’m) very well indeed, thank you.
Nothing much
Quite well, thank you
I’m in excellent health, thank you.
Not (too) bad
Fine, how about you
Fine and you?
All right thanks


V)                 Introducing yourself
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Hi  I’m mukul ray
Hello, I’m mukul ray
Good morning I’m mukul ray
Hell, you must be kiran. I’m mukul
How do you do?
(shaking hands)
my name is mukul

May I introduce my self? I’m mukul ray, regional sales manager vishal enterprises
Excuse me, you’re kiran aren’t you? I’m mukul
Excuse me ,my name is mukul

I’d like to introduce my self
I’m mukul ray
Aren’t you mukul? I’m kiran. Remember me?
Excuse me. I don’t think we‘ve met before. my name is mukul.
I’m afraid I don’t know / remember your name. I’m mukul. Good morning this is/ I’m mukul speaking ( on phone)

Kiran , meet mukul
This is mukul
I’d like you to meet mukul.
Good morning Mr. Sahani.
May I introduce mr.lal, 
Our new marketing manager?
Kiran, this is mukul,
Have you met / do you know mukul
Kiran, mukul

Let me introduce our new manager, Mr. Lal
It gives me great pleasure to introduce (to you) this evening’s guest / speakers mr.lal.


VI)               Responding to Introduction
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Hi  hello
How do you do?
Its great pleasure to meet you
Hello, How do you do?
Nice meeting you
Delighted to meet you
Hi hell, I’m kiran
Nice meeting you.
I’m not kiran , I’m kavita
I’m meena, good to meet you
Pleased to meet you
I’m very glad to meet you
Yes, I’m / it is.
I’ve been eager to meet you


VII)             Thanking
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Thanks
Thank you (very much/ indeed)
You ‘ve been so/very kind
Many thanks
You ‘re most kind
I’m most / extremely grateful to you
Thanks a lot
(For………)
It’s very good of you
I’m much /extremely obliged to you.
That was /it’s really nice of you
It’ s most kind of you
I’m obliged (to you) I’m really obliged to you for ….
I really can’t thank you enough.
I really don’t know how to thank you.
I should like to express my gratitude for……


VIII)           Responding to thanks
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
( you ‘re welcome)
Not at all
Delighted to help
It’s ok
It’ s a pleasure
Glad to be of (some) service.
That’s all right
( it was) my pleasure
It was the least I would do
Any time
(Pleasure) don’t mention it. It’s no trouble at all. Thank you.
The pleasure was mine

IX)                Response to apologies
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
It’s / that’s ok
That’s  (quite)all right
It’s / that’s perfectly all right.
Forget it
Not all
There’s no reason/ need to
Asking permission
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Is it all right
To /if….?
Can / could I … please?
Do I have your permission to…?
All right if…?
Do you mind if …?
Do/ will you have any objection to if….?
Let me ….?
Mind if I ….?
Might / may I ….?
With /by your leave….?
With your permission….

X) Giving and refusing permission
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Sure
Of course
Feel free to…..
Ok / fine/ all right
Yes, certainly
There seems to be no reason. Why you can’t…..
Yes,/ ( that’s) all right
You’re welcome
Sorry. That’s out of question
Yes , that’s fine  sorry
Not at all sorry, you can’t no. I am afraid not no way.
( I’m afraid)
Sorry that’s not possible


XI) Asking for agreement
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Yes/ ok / right?
Don’t you feel think…?
Do would you agree with / that…?
Isn’t that so?
Don’t you agree?
I wonder if you would agree.
All right
Don’t you think so?
You wouldn’t / don’t disagree with that ….
Is it/ isn’t
It/ isn’t / he/ aren’t  they
Wouldn’t you say so?


XII) Agreeing
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Yes / sure
Yes, I agree
Oh, I agree totally/ entirely/ absolutely
Exactly/ certainly / precisely
That’s right / true
I couldn’t agree more
You’re right
How true that’s just what I was think
I’m exactly of same opinion.

XIII) Disagreeing
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Yes, but…..
(Oh) I don’t agree
I may be wrong but….
Oh surely not
Not really
I’m sorry
You cant mean that
I disagree
I just can’t agree with that
You must be joking
I can’t / wouldn’t agree with that
I beg to differ
You cant be serious rubbish/ nonsense
That’s quite true, but….
That’s wring / not right surely


XIV) Response to apologies
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
It’s / that’s ok
That’s  (quite)all right
It’s / that’s perfectly all right.
Forget it
Not all
There’s no reason/ need to
No problem
Please don’t worry

What for
It really doesn’t matter (at all)
It’s really not necessary
Lets forget it
It’s not your fault



XV) Excusing one self

Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Sorry
(Please) excuse me.
Pardon me
I’m sorry
Excuse me. Could I …?
Will you excuse me for a minute please
I beg your pardon
May I be excused for /from….

XVI) Responses to excuses
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
That’s ok
Of course
You’re excused
It’s all right

You may be excused

XVII) Asking for Information
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Could anyone tell me….?
Can/ could you tell me please,….?
Sorry to trouble you, but…?
Know (any thing about)…?
Excuse me. D’ you know if/when / where/ what / anything about…?
Would you be kind enough to please…?
Have you (got) any idea about …? (Got) any idea.
D’ you happen to know if/when / where / what / anything about…?
I hope you don’t mind my asking….?
Any clue (to / about) ….?
I’d like to know ….please
I wonder if you please tell me….?
Could you please give me any information about…?

XVIII) Responding to queries about information
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Yeah sure….
Yes/ of course
Definitely/certainly/ gladly
Er, yes / a bit
Sure
I shall be delighted to.
Why not...?
I’m not sure, but….
I’m afraid I don’t have that information.
Sorry, I don’t know
I’m sorry I don’t know

Sorry, no idea
I’m afraid. I don’t know anything / much about….I’ve no idea.

Good luck
Best of luck
Let me wish you good luck/all the best
Enjoy yourself/yourselves
All the best
May you do well/ succeed/prosper
Have fun
I hope you have a good journey,
i) wish you all the best
I wish you success (in ….)
Hope things go well
I wish you good luck


XIX) Responding to good wishes
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Thanks
Thank you
It’s very kind of you
Many thanks
Thank you very much
It’s very nice of you to wish me so.
Same to you.
And you.
Good luck to you too.


XX) Apologizing
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Sorry about that, my fault
Sorry / very sorry
I’m sorry to/ to be to have...
I’m really very /terrible / awfully sorry
I beg your pardon (for…)
I (do/ must) apologize (for….)
Please give me (for…)
please (do)accept my apologies ( for…)
I’ m sorry, it was entirely my fault.


XXI) Offers
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Here, have (some/ another)…
Can I …..?
May I help you?
Here, take (some / another a bit of)
Shall I …?
Perhaps I could help?
Do you want…?
Let me help you
Would you care for …?
Like a …
Would you like a…?
May I be assistance?
Please have/  take/
Sit down…

Is there anything I can do for you?
Could I be of any help /do something for you.
Need (some) help?
What will you have?
Do have….
I’ll do it/ carry it /for you.
What a hand?
How about….
Is there any thing you want / you‘d like?


XXII) Responding to offers: accepting and refusing          
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Yes, thanks
Yes, please
I’d be delighted
I’d love it/that
Thank you( very much)
If you don’t mind
Just what I needed
No, thank you (very much)
That’s very / extremely kind of you.
Lovely/ great/ terrific
No don’t bother / worry (really)
I’ d like that very much
No , its ok , thanks
Thank you very much but…
Please don’t trouble yourself.


XXIII) Requests
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Yes, sure
Yes, of course
Certainly
Yes, all right
Of course ,  not
definitely
Why not?
By all means
I’ would be delighted to
Here (you are)
Sorry
I’ m sorry I don’t  cant …
I’m afraid you can’t / it’s not possible / it’s not allowed



XXIV) Getting things done
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Give/ open / sit / get
Could you please…?
Would you be as kind as to…?
Do…., please
Would you / will you …., please?
Would you mind…?
I’d like you to…. please

XXV) Responding to orders
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Yeah/ sure
Yes, of course
Yes, sir
Right away
Of course not
Certainly, sir / madam
In a minute
I’m afraid that’s not possible
No, sir that may not be possible
Sorry……



XXVI) Warning
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Watch out!
Look out!
I would be extremely careful of/ to/ not to…..
Mind
Make sure you …….

Hey!
Be careful!
On no account to should you /we/ our……
Sh-hh!
Take care (not) to….


XXVII) Persuading
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
(One on (now)…..
Won’t you….please?
Are you quite sure you won’t reconsider …..?
Go on!
Why don’t you… please?
(Surely) the most sensible thing would be to….
Please! Just this once.
(for my sake)
Do……..


XXVIII) Asking permission
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Is it all right
To /if….?
Can / could I … please?
Do I have your permission to…?
All right if…?
Do you mind if …?
Do/ will you have any objection to if….?
Let me ….?
Mind if I ….?
Might / may I ….?
With /by your leave….?
With your permission….

XXIX) Giving and refusing permission
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Sure
Of course
Feel free to…..
Ok / fine/ all right
Yes, certainly
There seems to be no reason why you can’t…..
Yes,/ ( that’s) all right
You’re welcome
Sorry. That’s out of question
Yes , that’s fine  sorry
Not at all sorry, you can’t no. I am afraid not no way.
( I’m afraid)
Sorry that’s not possible

XXX) Asking for agreement
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Yes/ ok / right?
Don’t you feel /think…?
Do would you agree with / that…?
Isn’t that so?
Don’t you agree?
I wonder if you would agree.
All right
Don’t you think so?
You wouldn’t / don’t disagree with that ….
Is it/ isn’t
It/ isn’t / he/ aren’t  they
Wouldn’t you say so?


XXXI) Agreeing
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Yes / sure
Yes, I agree
Oh, I agree totally/ entirely/ absolutely
Exactly/ certainly / precisely
That’s right / true
I couldn’t agree more
You’re right
How true that’s just what I was think
I’m exactly of same opinion.

XXXII) Disagreeing
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Yes, but…..
(Oh) I don’t agree
I may be wrong but….
Oh surely not
Not really
I’m sorry
You can’t mean that
I disagree
I just can’t agree with that
You must be joking
I can’t / wouldn’t agree with that
I beg to differ
You can’t be serious rubbish/ nonsense
That’s quire true , but….
That’s wring / not right surely


XXXIII) Inviting
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Let’s ……………
Shall we………….?
We would be very pleased if you could ……….
Like to………….?
Would you like to……….?
I’d like you to…………..
Why don’t you……..?
Would you care to ………?
We should be delighted if you could ………….
What about………..?
Do………..
I was /We were wondering if you ‘d like to ………..
You must………….
Won’t you…………..?
It would be nice if……….
Come and ………….
I’d like to invite you to….


XXXIV) Suggesting
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Let’s ………….
Shall we………..?
Can/could /might I suggest
Fancy………….?.
You could………..?
I’d like to suggest
What about ………..?
I suggest that …..
You may /might like to….
How about………?
We might as well…….
Have you considered…..?
Why don’t we ……….?
Would you care to

We’ll………Shall we..?


Surely he/they could ..



XXXXV) Accepting an Invitation or a Suggestion
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Thanks .I’d love to.
That would be wonderful/ Very nice
We’d be delighted to..
Sounds great./Fine
Thanks. I like that.
That’s really nice/kind of you
O.K. /Alright
That sounds like a nice idea.
It would give me great pleasure to……
Yes, fine. Thanks.
Yes. I will. With pleasure.

I won’t say no.



XXXVI) Refusing an Invitation
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
That would be great but….
Thank you very much but..
That’s very kind of you but…
I’d love to but….
I’d like to but….
I’m awfully sorry but…
Sorry I can’t
I wish I could but …
Unfortunately…
Oh, I am sorry .I won’t be
Thank you very much for asking me but…..


XXXXVII) Expressing Likes
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
I’m crazy/mad  about
I like/love/enjoy
I have special/ particular fondness for
You can’t beat
I’m very keen on …
… is one of my favourites.
….. is really terrific.
… is wonderful/really good.
What I particularly enjoy is..
Wow/ lovely1
I have always loved /enjoyed
I’m very fond of

There’s nothing I like/enjoy more than …


XXXVIII) Expressing Dislikes
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
I can’t stand/ bear/ tolerate..
I hate/dislike/don’t like
I have to admit I rather dislike
Oh no!
I’m afraid I dislike
I specially dislike
Oh God!
I am sorry but I don’t like it at all
I don’t think it ..particularly good/pleasant /enjoyable.
It’s absolutely/ terribly/ dreadful.
I’m not very keen on

I never could put up with
I find it difficult to get on with…….


XXXIX) Asking about the likes
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Don’t you like/love/enjoy..?
What do you think of
Don’t you find…very enjoyable..?
Isn’t/ Aren’t.. great /terrific
Do you like/love
May I ask if you like/are fond of
Don’t you think … is nice/pleasant
How do you like..?


Are you keen on


XL) Drawing attention and interrupting
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Sorry to but in ,… but
Sorry to interrupt … but
May I have your attention please?
Look/Listen
Excuse me.
Pardon me..
Sorry … but
Ma’m/Sir
Could I just mention/ make a point..?


Pardon the interruption

XLI) Pre-Closings
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Thanks for a lovely…..
Well. I’d better be going
Thank you very much for your attention/support.
Well, it was really nice talking to you
I’m sorry but I’ve got to go
Well, I think that’s all. Thank you for seeing me.
Well. I must be off. Great seeing you.
Thank you very much for…
I hope you will excuse me but……
We must get together again soon.
I’m sorry .I can’t stay any longer.

Sorry. I got to go now. Drop in some time.
It’s been very nice talking to you, but…

Okay then…
It’s been a pleasure.





XLII) Closings
Informal
Any time/Any where
Formal
Bye.
Bye-bye.
Good bye
See you soon/later/tomorrow.
Good night
Hope to see you again sometime. Bye.
Look after yourself. Until next time then.

I look forward to seeing you soon/again soon. Bye.
So long.


Take care.




  1. Vocabulary Building: Prefixes

Prefix
Meaning
Example
Poly
Many
Polyglot- speaking or writing several languages
Post
After
Postwar- after the war
Pro
Forward, going, ahead of supporting
Proceed- to go forward
Proboscis- a snout
Prewar- supporting war
Re-
Again, back
Retell – to tell again
Retroactive- applying to things that have already taken place.
Se-
Apart
Secede-to withdraw
Semi-
Half, partly
Semicircle- half a circle
Semiliterate- able to read and write a little.
Sub-
Under , less than
Sub marine- under water
Sub conscious- beneath the consciousness.
Super-
Over, above
Superimpose- to put something greater over something else.
Tele-
Far
Telepathy-communication by through alone.
Trans-
Across
Transcontinental- across the continent.
Un-
Not
Unhelpful- not helpful
Ab-, a-, abs-
Away from
Abhor – withdrawing from in fear or disgust.
Abscond- to run away
Ambi-
Both
Ambivalent- having two feelings.
Ante-
Before
Antebellum- before the way
Circum-
Around
Circumscribe- to draw around.
De-
Away from , down
Depart- to go away from
Dia-
Across, through
Diagonal- across or through a figure.
Dis-
Apart, not
Disperse- to scatter widely
Dishonest- not honest
Dys-
Bad, ill
Dysfunction- a poor functioning
Epi-
Upon
Epitaph- an inscription upon a tombstone
Geo-
Earth
Geology – study of earth
Homo-
Same, equal, alike
Homonym- a word with the same
Neo-
New
Neologism- a new word or a new meaning for an old word.




Suffixes

Suffix
Meaning
Example
-able, -ible, -ble
Able to, capable of being
Viable- able to live
Edible- capable of being eaten
-acious, - cious
Having the quality of

-al
Of, like
Nocturnal- of the right
-ance, -ancy
The act of , a state of being
Performance- act of performing
Truancy- act of being truant
-ant, -ent
One who
Occupant- one who occupies
Respondent- one who responds.
-ar, -ary
Connected with, concerning
Ocular- pertaining the eye
Beneficiary- one who receives benefits
-fy
To make
Deity- to make into god
-ic, -ac
Of, like, pertaining to
Cryptic-hidden
Cardiac-pertaining to heart
-ion
The act or condition of
Correction-the act of correcting
-less
Without, lacking
Heart less- cruel, without a heart.
-ment
The act of , the state of
Alignment- act of aligning
Retirement- the state of being retired.


Root words

Root
Meaning
Examples
Acr
Sharp , bitter
Acrid- sharp , bitter
Act, ag
To do , to act
Activity-action
Agent- one who does
Acu
Sharp, keen
Acuity- keenness
Anim
Life, mind
Animate- to make alive
Anthrop
Man, mankind
Misanthrope- one who hates people
Apt
Fit
Adapt- to fit to
Arch
To rule
Patriarch- a father & ruler
Bas
Low
Debase- to make lower
Belli
War
Bellicose- hostile, warlike
Brev
Short
Abbreviate- to shorten
Cad, cas
To fall
Cadence- the fall of the voice in speaking, movement in sound.
Cap, capt
To take or hold
Captive- one who is caught and held
cid, cis
To cut , to kill
Incisive- cutting into, sharp
Homicide- the killing of a man by other.
Doc,doct
To teach
Doctrine-something taught
Domin
To rule , to master
Dominion- rule, a ruled territory
Dorm
To sleep
Dormant- sleeping , inactive
Dynamo
Power
Dynamite- a powerful explosive
Ego
I
Egocentric-seeing every thing in relation to oneself.
Fer, ferr, lat
To carry, to bring or bear
Reter- to carry to something or somebody else
Fid
Faith, trust
Confide- to tell a trusted person
Helio
Sun
Heliolatry- sun worship
Junct
To join
Junction- a joining
Jur
To swear
Perjure- to lie under oath
Labor
To work
Elaborate-worked out carefully
Loqu, locut
To talk
Loquacious- talkative
Luc
Light
Elucidate- to clarity
Mut
To change
Immutable- never changing
Noctum
Right
Nocturnal- taking place at right
Soph
Wise, wisdom
Sophisticate- a worldly- wise person.


11. Vocabulary Building: Phrasal Verbs

        Phrase
                     meaning
Account for
To explain
Ache for
Wanting something or someone a lot
Act on
To take action because of something like information received.
Act out
Perform something with actions and gestures express on emotion in your behavior.
Add on
Include in a calculation
Add up
To make a mathematical total-be a satisfactory explanation for something
Act up
Behave boldly or strangely
Add upto
Move a certain result
Aim at
To target
Allow for
Include something in  a plan or calculation
Angle for
Try to get something indirectly, by hinting or suggesting
Answer back
To reply rudely to someone in authority
Answer for
Be held responsible for a problem
Argue out
Argue about a problem to find solution
Ask after
Enquire about  someone’s health how life is going
Ask in
To invite somebody into your house
Ask out
To invite someone for a date
Ask over
Invite


IDIOMS

                The word phrase refers to a word group that to a word group that lacks a subject and / or a predicate and functions as a single part of speech. The etymology of all idioms is not known clearly; however, the etymology of some of these is obvious.

Idioms
Meaning
A bad patch
A period of difficulty or unhappiness
A big hit
Very popular
A cats paw
A person who is used cunningly as a tool by another
A curtain lecture
A rebuke in private given by wife to her husband
A close shave
A narrow escape
All and sundry
Everybody
At one’s wit’s end
Disagreeing and disputing
Bid fair
Seems like or probable
Cheek by jowl
Close together
Crocodile tears
Insincere tears only for an effect
Cry for the moon
Demand something impossible
For a song
Very cheap
Drive home
To make a point effectively
Get wind off
Hear a rumor of
Go Dutch
Share expenses equally
In a nut shell
In the fewest possible words
Laughing stock
An object of ridicule
Thin on top
Becoming bald
The lion’s share
The largest and best part
Slip one’s mind
To forget
Take one to task
To punish
To bait a trap
To tempt with a bad idea
The red carpet
Special welcome or attention
Rob Peter to pay Paul
Take from one person and give it to another person
In the nick of time
Just in time
Make both ends meet
Live within the income
In a soup
In trouble
Sum and substance
The essence
Fit the bill
Be suitable
Cry wolf
Raise a false alarm

12. Vocabulary Building: One word substitutes

One word may be used in place of several word or phrases. This will help in being concise. The following list contains some one word substitutions.

                        Word /phrases
               One word substitution
That which cannot be expressed in words
Inexpressible
That which cannot be avoided
Unavoidable
That which cannot be believed
incredible
That which cannot be burnt
incombustible
That which cannot be divided
Indivisible
That which cannot be recovered
Irrecoverable
That which cannot be seen
Invisible
That which cannot be read
Illegible
That which cannot be heard
Inaudible
That which cannot be conquered
Invincible
That which cannot be dispensed with
Indispensable
That which cannot be altered
Irrecoverable
That which cannot be perceived by sense
Imperceptible
That which cannot be excused
Inexcusable
That which cannot be allowed
Inadmissible
That which cannot be reached
inaccessible
A person who knows many  languages
Linguist
One who is unable to pay one’s debts
Insolvent
A person who leaves his country to settle in some other country
Emigrant
Selected or elected under the existing rules
Ineligible
A person who comes as a settler into a foreign country
Immigrant
One who is able to make an eloquent speech
Orator
One who always looks at the bright side of life
Optimist
One who always looks at the dark side of life
pessimist

13. Body Language


Bodily orientation (the degree to which one interactant’s shoulders and legs are turned toward, rather than away from, the other interactant):
·        Standing individuals interact with more direct orientation with those of higher status than with those of lower status.
 Open and closed bodily positions (with open positions consisting of knees apart, legs stretched out, elbows away from body, hands not touching, legs uncrossed, etc., and closed positions consisting of legs crossed at either knees or ankles, hands folded on lap, arms crossed, etc.):
·        Individuals with open body positions are perceived more positively than those with closed body positions. 
·        Individuals with open body positions are more persuasive than those with closed body positions. 
 Trunk lean (the direction in which one interactant positions his or her trunk, forward / toward or backward / away from, in relation to the other interactant):
·        Individuals who engage in forward trunk leans increase the verbal output of their interactional partner more than those who do not.
·        Individuals tend to engage in more sideways-leans when interacting with lower-status than with higher-status individuals. 
 Postural positions:
·        The adoption (or imitation) of common bodily postures (identified as posture matching) by interactants in pairs or groups tends to enhance rapport between/ among the interactants, because it signals that the interactants are open to and with one another.  The adoption of noncongruent postures tends to indicate attitudinal and perceptual differences or relationship distance. 
 Gestures (hand and arm movements):
·        Speakers engage in more manipulative gestures (such as touching self or surroundings) when they are responding to intimate questions and when they are interacting at a close interpersonal distance. 
·        Individuals’ hand movements – especially vertical one – can indicate a positive interpersonal relationship. 
 Head movements:
·        Listeners who engage in head nodding increase the speech duration of speakers.
·         Listeners who engage in head nodding provide positive reinforcements for speakers.

 Interpersonal Distances from Various Categories of Interaction
Proper Climates for Interactions 
Distance
Type of Encounter
Voice Volume
Close (8 in. to 12 in.)
Highly personal, seldom used in public.
Audible whisper, very confidential
Near (12 in. to 36 in.)
Many dyadic social interactions occur.
Indoors, soft voice;
Neutral (41/2 ft.to 5 ft.)

Most social gatherings and business transactions.
Outdoors, full voice
Public distance (51/2 ft. to 8 ft.)
Business and social discourse more formal. Desks in offices are placed to hold off visitors.
Full voice with slight over loudness
Across the room (8 ft. to 20 ft.)
Used by teachers or speakers at public gatherings.
Loud voice talking to a group
Far distance (20 ft. and more)
Public speaking by public figures.
Hailing distances, public-address systems







               



Defensive Climates

Supportive Climates

Leaning back (possibly with both hands supporting the head) or away
Leaning forward
Positioning body to exclude partner, pointing feet or entire body toward the exit
Positioning body to include partner
Turning face away from partner
Turning face toward partner nodding head vertically (affirmatively)
Shaking head horizontally (negatively)
Nodding head vertically (affirmatively)
Assuming incongruent (dissimilar) body posture
Assuming congruent (similar) body posture
Making excessive postural shifts, fidgeting, tapping or jiggling a foot, maintaining a fixed or rigid body posture
Maintaining a relaxed/involved body posture
Elevating one's self, "standing tall"
Maintaining same elevation as partner
Holding head and/or body erect, tilting head back
Tilting head slightly to the side
Increasing distance between self and partner or invading partner's personal space
Maintaining a close and comfortable distance from the partner
Maintaining a closed body posture (crossing or locking arms/legs or camouflaging body crosses)
Maintaining an open body posture
Crossing legs away from partner
Crossing legs toward partner touching partner
Avoiding tactile contact with partner
Touching partner
Engaging in highly expansive gestures
Engaging in natural gestures




















 




Gesture
Moderate
exaggerated
Forward Lean
Friendly feelings
Hostile feelings
Direct eye contact
Friendly feelings
Hostile feelings
Unique dress and hair style
Creativity
Rebelliousness
Upright posture
Expertise; self-confidence
Uprightness; hostility
Variability in voice pitch, rate and loudness
Lively mind
Nervousness; anxiety; insecurity
Smiling
Friendliness; relaxed and secure composure
Masking hostility; submissiveness
Averting gaze
Shyness; modesty
Guilt; unreliability
Knitted brow
Involvement
Hostility
Nodding and reaching out the hands while talking
Self-confidence
Uncertainty
Negative gesture
Interpretation
Hair-twirling
Incompetence and uncertainty
Placing your hand in front of your mouth
Anxiety about your competence
Rubbing your arm or leg
Anxiety about your competence; uncertainty
Wringing your hands; rubbing your fingers
Nervousness; anxiety; uncertainty
Slumped posture
Boredom; alienation

























14. EFFECTIVE INTERVIEW SKILLS

Interview is a process through which candidates are hired for a job. Talents and Skills are the only tools, which could lead an individual towards the door of success in this challenging time. To qualify for a professional degree or a job, one should have strong past educational background along with integrated multi dimensional skills. It’s of no use acquiring higher degree without building character, confidence, and expressive personality.
You should have to be prepared in advance for an interview. You should be clearly able to show the skills and qualities you processes .If you can show your trust, your confidence, your commitment, and appropriate skills, then you can win a successful future. Interview is a form of oral communication. It’s one to one, or one to group interaction, where an applicant proves himself as a unique person to be the part of an organization. Remember that interview is always pre-planned and structured. It’s a formal presentation between an interviewer and an interviewee. Only those who are original and show their interest with confidence and who are presentable can pass it. .
Hiring/Entrance Interview is one of the best known and the most widely experienced type of interview, where an interviewer is hired by a Human Resource Manager/ Educational Expertise.

 PREPARATION BEFORE INTERVIEW
First of all, prepare your mind in advance that you are going to have an interview next morning. Relax yourself and do not get nervous, tense or tired at any cost. Before going for an interview, plan a few things:
1. Learn about the company, organization or educational institution and do some research in advance. This is done to develop good answers and prove you unique.
2. You can gather information about organizational structure; type of their clients/ students; departments and its branches; past and present achievements etc. Simply search yellow pages or ask your friend or family member/relative who are familiar about organization or you can collect information through newspapers and websites.
Prepare answers to typical questions. Practice your answer and never rote learn it.

Some sample questions.

1. What do you feel about our organization?
2. What are your weaknesses?
3. Why do you want to become a part of our organization?
4. Tell me about your self and about your hobbies.
5. Who is your role model and why?

 If you are lucky to know the name of a person, who will interview you, then memorizes his/her name properly.
  • Decide what to wear. Remember to Dress simply but elegantly. Dress should be well ironed without crease.
  • Wear comfortable shoes. Remember to wear basic hosiery. You can even check what management wears and dress similarly without over kill. Do not Dress casual or wear Athletic Shoes.
  • Do not spray lots of cologne or wear lots of jewelry.
  • Do not wear wrinkled attire or flashing tie.
  • Prepare your file having your portfolio, educational degree copies and extra copies of your resume.
  • Find proper address in advance, that where are you going in the morning.
  • Last but not the least; get a good night sleep.

ON THE DAY OF INTERVIEW
  • Take a bath.
  • Do not apply heavy makeup.
  • Always carry a purse or a small handy briefcase with you.
  • Do carry your portfolio file.
  • Dress effectively. Do not eat anything containing garlic or onion in your breakfast.
  • Arrive 15 minutes earlier to show you’re prompt and serious.

 DURING INTERVIEW
1.       Enter the room confidently.
2.       Offer your hand and give a firm shake, else greet them with your pleasant smile.
3.       Take a permission to sit on a chair.
4.       Show a positive confident attitude and introduce yourself.
5.       Don’t get tense. Be comfortable and face the interviewer effectively. Listen to their questions completely and answer it genuinely. Answer every question with confidence.
6.       Have a proper eye contact. Remember that the interviewer might be more than one, so keep your eye contact with every individual interviewer to make them feel unique.
7.       Answer clearly with a normal voice. Do not shout. Show your confidence level at every moment of an interview.
8.       Show your certificates or achievements only when they ask you to show. Always sit straight. It might help them to analyze your personality and your traits.
9.       Use the medium of answer, in which you feel comfortable. Remember to use good grammar and strong vocabulary with neutral accent.
10.   Never complain about your past organization or employers.
11.   Do not argue and always give respect to your interviewer. Always try to mould your answer according to your interviewer’s personality.
12.   Do not eat chewing gum, while answering questions.
13.   If they give you a chance to ask any query or question ask relevant questions.

TRADITIONAL INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
  • Tell me about yourself (in two minutes).
  • Why do you feel that you will be successful in...?
  • What do you feel about our organization?
  • What are your weaknesses?
  • Why do you want to become a part of our organization?
  • Tell me about your self and about your hobbies.
  • Who is your role model and why?
  • Are you willing to relocate?
  • Tell me about your scholastic record.
  • Tell me about your extra-curricular activities and interests.
  • What are your strengths and weaknesses?
  • Why should we hire you?
  • Why did you choose to become a teacher, nurse...?
  • Where do you see yourself in 5 years? 10 years?
  • Why do you want to leave your current job?

AFTER INTERVIEW

Ø  With a pleasing smile, say thanks and ask about the next step in the process. Follow up.
Ø  Call them if you do not get a call within a given time frame and don't forget to write a thank you letter to an organization for taking out their precious time for your interview skills.

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